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COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL HYPNOTHERAPY IN A CASE OF PHOBIA OF DOGS

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Viorel LUPU1* & Izabela Ramona LUPU2 1Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 2Iuliu Haţieganu School, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract This paper presents the cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy intervention in a case of dog phobia in a 10-year old patient, through the desensitization technique, originally in the imaginary, over several hypnosis sessions, interleaved with self-hypnosis sessions, […]

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IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT SELF-ESTEEM AND IRRATIONAL BELIEFS

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Florin A. SAVA, Laurenţiu P. MARICUŢOIU, Silvia RUSU, Irina MACSINGA, Delia VÎRGĂ West University of Timişoara, Timişoara, Romania Abstract The relationship between irrational beliefs and explicit and implicit self-esteem was examined in two consecutive studies (N1 = 117; N2 = 102) conducted on undergraduate university students. Two robust findings were the negative correlation between explicit […]

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Rational-Emotive Behavioral interventions for children with anxiety problems

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The purpose of this article is to provide detailed descriptions of specific clinical interventions that can be used by REBT therapists working with children and adolescents who are experiencing difficulties with anxiety. It is worth noting that anxiety disorders are among the most commonly occurring mental and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence. While a majority of publications focus on empirical research, there is still a need for articles that address clinical practices. REBT is, first and foremost, a system devoted to the practice of psychotherapy. Whether it is through articles focused on empirical research or clinical applications, the advancement of REBT is the ultimate goal.

One of the most efficient anxiety management techniques involves the use of distraction in which clients are encouraged to substitute a calming mental image to interrupt the anxiety producing thoughts. This article also provides a detailed explanation of rational-emotive imagery (REI), which is a technique that employs relaxation prior to clients generating their own rational coping statements. Finally, a progressive thought-stopping technique is examined. In this intervention, the therapist provides successively less direction and guidance in the hopes that clients will be able to master this technique for use independently.

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Rationality and REBT

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This paper looks at the logical background to Ellis’s use of ‘rational’ and ‘rationality’, and why this use is so relevant to the importance of REBT. It explores two fundamental and apparently contrasting usages, referred to here as disciplinary and emancipatory rationality (discrat and emanrat), and their interplay in REBT.

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The congruence of the philosophy of rational emotive behavior therapy within the philosophy of mainstream Christianity

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This paper attempts to demonstrate that the philosophy of REBT and the philosophy of Christianity are congruent. Both seek to transform the individual who is experiencing pain, alienation, self-defeating behaviors into a person with a radically new and liberating philosophy of life, or newly uncovered and self-accepted being. Moreover, the key to this transformation is a change of fundamental beliefs away from dogmatic demandingness, awfulizing, low frustration tolerance, and self and other-downing toward an unconditional acceptance of the self, others, the world, and life.

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Logotherapy-enhanced REBT: an integration of discovery and reason

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A close review of Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy and Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) demonstrates remarkable similarities between these two systems of psychotherapy. An integrated Logotherapy-enhanced REBT is examined in respect to cognitions, emotions, and the reduction of rumination. Its unique contribution is to balancing discovery of meaning with the use of reason during the process of psychotherapy. Conclusions are drawn, limitations are discussed, and future recommendations are outlined.

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The faster you move the longer you live – a test of rational emotive behavior therapy?

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When testing a potentially influential theory one usually makes sure to employ the best tests in order to receive strait answers. Surprisingly however, some tests are designed to fail from the very beginning, before implementation, as: (1) they do not in fact examine the theory that is supposed to be investigated and/or (2) they investigate the theory using an inappropriate methodology. In rigorous sciences, situations of this kind are limited because the scientific community does not allow such studies published or run. Unfortunately, this is often not the case for psychology. In this article we present how rational-emotive & cognitive-behavioral therapy has been “distorted” by inappropriate “tests” of its hypotheses. Conclusion and implications for future research are discussed.

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Positive emotions and irrational beliefs. Dysfunctional positive emotions in healthy individuals

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Since negative affect has been in the focus of attention for the entire history of psychotherapy, time has now come to turn towards cognitive factors involved in mild disturbances of positive affect. This article focuses on dysfunctional positive emotions and how they relate to evaluative cognitions and arousal. One of the basic assumptions of the rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) theory of emotions is that irrational beliefs lead to both positive and negative dysfunctional emotions. To date there is no empirical data investigating dysfunctional positive emotions and their relations to different types of irrational beliefs in healthy individuals. 35 subjects participated in this study. They were asked to recall a positive event in two conditions: a) pre-goal attainment condition, prompted by the instruction of recalling an event when a cue primed the anticipation of goal attainment and b) post-goal attainment condition prompted by the instruction of recalling an event and their reactions after they have met an important goal. After each experimental condition, participants completed questionnaires assessing, pre-goal and post-goal attainment positive emotions, arousal, dysfunctional positive inferences, context inappropriateness of the emotional experience, evaluative cognitions, and the ABS II scale-Romanian version. Results indicate that subjects high on demandingness have higher levels of pre-goal attainment emotions than low demanding subjects when they meet their goals, and possibly a higher level of post-goal positive emotions, when they anticipate attaining a personal goal. Also it seems that state and trait demandingness have different relations with positive emotions. We suggest that dysfunctional positive emotions can be differentiated by the context in which they are experienced, and that there are two types of dysfunctional positive emotions: a) post-goal attainment dysfunctional positive emotions referring to high levels of pre-goal attainment positive emotions after achieving personal goals, and b) pre-goal attainment dysfunctional positive emotions referring to high levels of post-goal attainment positive emotions when anticipating and moving towards goal attainment. Correlation analysis has revealed relations between evaluative cognitions, dysfunctional inferences, arousal, and dysfunctional positive emotions. Implications for positive emotions research and psychotherapy are discussed.

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Demanding brain: between should and shouldn’t

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Albert Ellis’ cognitive theory of emotions makes a major distinction between positive and negative demandingness and preferences, but up to now there is no scale that makes this distinction evident. The main goal of this study is to validate this distinction by showing that positive and negative evaluative beliefs are separately associated with two distinct motivational brain systems: the approach/withdrawal systems. Participants (N=46) were tested with a modified version of the ABS II scale, allowing the distinction between positive and negative evaluative beliefs; subsequently they completed the BIS/BAS scales (Carver & White, 1994). Results show that positive demandingness and irrationality, but not preferences, strongly correlate with approach system sensitivity (BAS scores), while negative demandingness and irrationality, but not preferences, strongly correlate with withdrawal system sensitivity (BIS scores). This study suggests that individuals tend to develop positive and negative demandingness depending on the approach/withdrawal motivational systems sensitivity. Implications for emotional reactions and therapy are also discussed.

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