Vol VII, No. 1, 2007 7
An analysis of the relationship between irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts in predicting distress
The present study examined the relationship between irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts in predicting distress (i.e., depressed mood in patients with major depressive disorder). Although both constructs have been hypothesized and found to predict emotional reactions in stressful situations, the relationships between these two types of cognitions in predicting distress has not been sufficiently addressed in empirical studies. Our results show that both irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts are related to distress (i.e., depression/depressed mood), and that the effects of irrational beliefs on distress are partially mediated by automatic thoughts.
Choosing a mate in Romania: a cognitive evolutionary psychological investigation of personal advertisements market
Evolutionary psychologists generally combine sexual selection theory and empirical research to identify mating strategies in humans. The theory behind the current literature on human mating is the theory of parental investment (Trivers, 1972), which states that during mate search, given the asymmetry in parental investment of the two sexes, females should focus on attributes reflecting resources, whereas males should focus on indicators of health and fertility. Our study is an investigation of mating strategies reflected by the Romanian market of personal advertisements. We performed the content analysis of 400 personal advertisements placed online by heterosexual Romanian advertisers. Our findings are in agreement with Trivers’s predictions and with other similar studies. Thus, Romanian men offered resources and were more interested in younger partners and in attributes signaling health and fertility. Romanian women were significantly more interested than men in older partners and in attributes reflecting wealth of the sought partners. Romanian women appear to be well attuned to their market value, whereas men overestimate themselves. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first one to investigate the Romanian advertisements market from an evolutionary psychological perspective, with a potential impact on the cognitive-behavioral therapy of couples and families.
Elements of Buddhist philosophy in cognitive psychotherapy: the role of cultural specifics and universals
This article traces current and emerging themes from Buddhist philosophy and psychology that have increasingly appeared in western cognitive psychotherapeutic practices. We argue that this interest has occurred within the context of post-modernist, relativistic thinking patterns first exemplified by the constructivistic movement within cognitive psychotherapy. This in turn has arisen from a world-wide clash of cultures in which western cognitive psychotherapies have been forced to reconsider some of their own tacit assumptions. Ideas for the future development of cognitive psychotherapies using Buddhist and Eastern ways of thinking are presented.
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FRIENDS, a well-validated emotional resiliency program, to reduce internalizing problems among primary school children aged 8-10. 47 children who reached at least the cutoff point for internalizing score, as measured using a standardized test on child behaviour, were allocated to either the intervention or the wait-list control condition. All children completed measures on internalizing symptoms and self-esteem both before and after an 8-week FRIENDS intervention or wait period. Results showed that children from the FRIENDS program showed significantly higher self-esteem and fewer internalizing symptoms when compared to those in the waitlist group. Modifications done on adapting FRIENDS to culturally and contextually appropriate content for Hong Kong children with internalizing problems were discussed. Limitations of this study were also addressed.
Changing health-risk behaviors: a review of theory and evidence-based interventions in health psychology
Changing health-risk behavior has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality and enhance quality of life. The present review aims to describe the models and theories that underpin effective interventions and the empirical studies that warrant their successful use with specific health risk-behaviors. Motivational, behavioral enactment and multi-stage models are critically discussed in the context of identifying the ingredients that help translate theories into practice by designing effective behavior change interventions. Future research directions are outlined for continuing the development of a theory and evidence based practice in health psychology and its integration with evidence-based theory and practice of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies, as both are focused on behavioral change.
Research on Rational Emotive Education (REE) is not as prolific as in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), on which it is based. No quantitative meta-analytic studies of REE were found in the literature; in fact, we found only 6 reviews on REE. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of REE through a quantitative meta-analitical study. Twenty-six (26) published articles, which fit the inclusion criteria, were examined. Results demonstrated that REE had a powerful effect on lessening irrational beliefs and dysfunctional behaviors, plus a moderate effect concerning positive inference making and decreasing negative emotions. The efficiency of REE appeared to not be affected by the length of applied REE. Rather, the REE effect was strong when participants were concerned with their problems. Types of psychometric measure used for irrational beliefs evaluation affected the results. Effect sizes increased from medium to large when the subjects were children and adolescents compared to young adults.
Dysfunctional attitudes, depression and quality of life in a sample of Romanian Hungarian cancer patients
The main objective of this was to investigate the relationship between depression, dysfunctional attitudes (DA), and their effect on quality of life (QoL) in a sample of Romanian Hungarian cancer patients. Our sample consisted of 376 patients hospitalized with different types and grades of cancer, and was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and the Functional Quality of Life Scale. We have found significant differences in depression only between age groups; significant differences in quality of life between age groups and different levels of education; significant differences of dysfunctional attitudes have been found between rural and urban patients. As our data have revealed, in the assessed population one of the most disturbing psychological changes that may accompany this life threatening illness consists in the heightened levels of depression. Taking into consideration the specificities of the traditional rural Romanian Hungarian culture, the reasons for these differences in depression and QoL may be induced or catalyzed by other mechanisms as well. The significant, though weak correlation between dysfunctional attitudes and depression supports this presumption. We suggest that cancer patients may need more individual-tailored and culture specific interventions.
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