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An analysis of the relationship between irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts in predicting distress

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The present study examined the relationship between irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts in predicting distress (i.e., depressed mood in patients with major depressive disorder). Although both constructs have been hypothesized and found to predict emotional reactions in stressful situations, the relationships between these two types of cognitions in predicting distress has not been sufficiently addressed in empirical studies. Our results show that both irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts are related to distress (i.e., depression/depressed mood), and that the effects of irrational beliefs on distress are partially mediated by automatic thoughts.

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Choosing a mate in Romania: a cognitive evolutionary psychological investigation of personal advertisements market

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Evolutionary psychologists generally combine sexual selection theory and empirical research to identify mating strategies in humans. The theory behind the current literature on human mating is the theory of parental investment (Trivers, 1972), which states that during mate search, given the asymmetry in parental investment of the two sexes, females should focus on attributes reflecting resources, whereas males should focus on indicators of health and fertility. Our study is an investigation of mating strategies reflected by the Romanian market of personal advertisements. We performed the content analysis of 400 personal advertisements placed online by heterosexual Romanian advertisers. Our findings are in agreement with Trivers’s predictions and with other similar studies. Thus, Romanian men offered resources and were more interested in younger partners and in attributes signaling health and fertility. Romanian women were significantly more interested than men in older partners and in attributes reflecting wealth of the sought partners. Romanian women appear to be well attuned to their market value, whereas men overestimate themselves. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first one to investigate the Romanian advertisements market from an evolutionary psychological perspective, with a potential impact on the cognitive-behavioral therapy of couples and families.

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Elements of Buddhist philosophy in cognitive psychotherapy: the role of cultural specifics and universals

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This article traces current and emerging themes from Buddhist philosophy and psychology that have increasingly appeared in western cognitive psychotherapeutic practices. We argue that this interest has occurred within the context of post-modernist, relativistic thinking patterns first exemplified by the constructivistic movement within cognitive psychotherapy. This in turn has arisen from a world-wide clash of cultures in which western cognitive psychotherapies have been forced to reconsider some of their own tacit assumptions. Ideas for the future development of cognitive psychotherapies using Buddhist and Eastern ways of thinking are presented.

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Using friends to combat internalizing problems among primary school children in Hong Kong

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The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FRIENDS, a well-validated emotional resiliency program, to reduce internalizing problems among primary school children aged 8-10. 47 children who reached at least the cutoff point for internalizing score, as measured using a standardized test on child behaviour, were allocated to either the intervention or the wait-list control condition. All children completed measures on internalizing symptoms and self-esteem both before and after an 8-week FRIENDS intervention or wait period. Results showed that children from the FRIENDS program showed significantly higher self-esteem and fewer internalizing symptoms when compared to those in the waitlist group. Modifications done on adapting FRIENDS to culturally and contextually appropriate content for Hong Kong children with internalizing problems were discussed. Limitations of this study were also addressed.

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Changing health-risk behaviors: a review of theory and evidence-based interventions in health psychology

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Changing health-risk behavior has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality and enhance quality of life. The present review aims to describe the models and theories that underpin effective interventions and the empirical studies that warrant their successful use with specific health risk-behaviors. Motivational, behavioral enactment and multi-stage models are critically discussed in the context of identifying the ingredients that help translate theories into practice by designing effective behavior change interventions. Future research directions are outlined for continuing the development of a theory and evidence based practice in health psychology and its integration with evidence-based theory and practice of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies, as both are focused on behavioral change.

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