Vol XVII, No. 1, 2017 Comments (0)

Silvia CEREA*, Gioia BOTTESI, Umberto GRANZIOL, Marta GHISI

University of Padova, Padova, Italy

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with perceived defects in physical appearance that are not observable to others. Little is known about BDD prevalence and phenomenology in the Italian context and no data are currently available on its prevalence and phenomenology as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- Fifth Edition criteria in Italy. Furthermore, no Italian self-report questionnaires specifically assessing BDD phenomenology and its associated clinical features are currently available. Therefore, the current study aimed at developing and validating a new self-report questionnaire, the Questionario sul Dismorfismo Corporeo (QDC). Six hundred and fifteen community individuals from Northern, Central and Southern Italy (69.4% female) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the QDC and other measures aimed at assessing psychological and psychopathological features related to BDD (self-esteem, social anxiety, general distress, obsessive compulsive and eating disorders symptoms). The QDC demonstrated a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency. Moreover, the QDC showed excellent one-month test-retest reliability and a cut-off point of > 130. Finally, significant correlations were found between the QDC and associated psychological and psychopathological measures. Overall, results suggest that the QDC represents a reliable measure to assess BDD within the Italian context.

Keywords: assessment; body dysmorphic disorder; Italian community sample; psychometric properties; receiver operating characteristic analyses

Doi: 10.24193/jebp.2017.1.4

Published online: 2017/03/01
Published print: 2017/03/01

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 4th ed. (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Buhlmann, U., Glaesmer, H., Mewes, R., Fama, J. M., Wilhelm, S., Brähler, E., & Rief, W. (2010). Updates on the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder: a population-based survey. Psychiatry Research, 178, 171-175. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.05.002
Buhlmann, U., & Winter, A. (2011). Perceived ugliness: an update on treatment-relevant aspects of body dysmorphic disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 13, 283-288. doi: 10.1007/s11920-011-0203-5
Bottesi, G., Ghisi, M., Altoè, G., Conforti, E., Melli, G., & Sica, C. (2015). The Italian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21: Factor structure and psychometric properties on community and clinical samples. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 60, 170-181. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.04.005
Cash, T. F., Phillips, K. A., Santos, M. T., & Hrabosky, J. I. (2004). Measuring “negative body image”: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in a nonclinical population. Body Image, 1, 363-372. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.10.001
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
Dingemans, A. E., van Rood, Y. R., de Groot, I., & van Furth, E. F. (2012). Body dysmorphic disorder in patients with an eating disorder: Prevalence and characteristics. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45, 562-569. doi: 10.1002/eat.20972
Dobson, C., Goudy, W. J., Keith, P. M., & Powers, E. (1979). Further analysis of Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale. Psychological Reports, 44, 639-641.
Eberenz, K. P., & Gleaves, D. H. (1994). An examination of the internal consistency and factor structure of the eating disorder inventory‐2 in a clinical sample. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16, 371-379.
Fleming, J. S., & Courtney, B. E. (1984). The dimensionality of self-esteem: II. Hierarchical facet model for revised measurement scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 404-421.
Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., Hajcak, G., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2002). The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485-496. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.14.4.485
Foa, E. B., Kozak, M. J., Salkovskis, P. M., Coles, M. E., & Amir, N. (1998). The validation of a new obsessive–compulsive disorder scale: The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 10, 206-214. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.10.3.206
Garner, D. M. (1991). Eating disorders inventory-2. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Garner, D. M., & Olmsted, M. P. (1984). The eating disorder inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Ghisi, M., Chiri, L. R., Marchetti, I., Sanavio, E., & Sica, C. (2010). In search of specificity: “Not just right experiences” and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in non-clinical and clinical Italian individuals. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 879-886. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.06.011
Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., & Eckert, E. D. (2002). Body dysmorphic disorder in patients with anorexia nervosa: prevalence, clinical features, and delusionality of body image. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32, 291-300. doi: 0.1002/eat.10091
Gunstad, J., & Phillips, K. A. (2003). Axis I comorbidity in body dysmorphic disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44, 270-276. doi: 10.1016/S0010-440X(03)00088-9
Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Sydney: Sydney Psychology edition.
Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455-470. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(97)10031-6
Oosthuizen, P., Lambert, T., & Castle, D. J. (1998). Dysmorphic concern: prevalence and associations with clinical variables. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 129-132. doi: 10.3109/00048679809062719
Phillips, K. A. (2004). Body dysmorphic disorder: recognizing and treating imagined ugliness. World Psychiatry, 3, 12-17.
Phillips, K. A. (2005). The Broken Mirror: Understanding and Treating Body Dysmorphic Disorder (revised and expanded ed). New York: Oxford University Press.
Phillips, K. A. (2006). The presentation of body dysmorphic disorder in medical settings. Primary Psychiatry, 13, 51-59.
Phillips, K. A., & Diaz, S. (1997). Gender differences in body dysmorphic disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 570–577.
Phillips, K. A., McElroy, S. L., Keck, P. E., Pope, H. G., & Hudson, J.I. (1993). Body dysmorphic disorder: 30 cases of imagined ugliness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 302–308. doi: 10.1176/ajp.150.2.302
Phillips, K. A., Menard, W., Fay, C., & Weisberg, R. (2005). Demographic characteristics, phenomenology, comorbidity, and family history in 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics, 46, 317-325. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.46.4.317
Phillips, K. A., Pinto, A., & Jain, S. (2004). Self-esteem in body dysmorphic disorder. Body image, 1, 385-390.
Prezza, M., Trombaccia, F. R., & Armento, L. (1997). La scala dell’autostima di Rosenberg: Traduzione e validazione Italiana. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 223, 35–44.
Rizzardi, M., Trombini, E., & Trombini, G. (1995). EDI-2 – Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Manuale d’uso. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.
Robinson, J., Shaver, P., & Wrightsman, L. (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (VI). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rosen, J. C., & Ramirez, E. (1998). A comparison of eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder on body image and psychological adjustment. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 44, 441-449.
Sica, C., Caudek, C., Chiri, L. R., Ghisi, M., & Marchetti, I. (2012). “Not just right experiences” predict obsessive–compulsive symptoms in non-clinical Italian individuals: A one-year longitudinal study. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 1, 159-167. doi: 10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.03.006
Sica, C., Ghisi, M., Altoè, G., Chiri, L. R., Franceschini, S., Coradeschi, D., & Melli, G. (2009). The Italian version of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Its psychometric properties on community and clinical samples. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 204-211. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.07.001
Sica, C., Musoni, I., Chiri, L. R., Bisi, B., Lolli, V., & Sighinolfi, C. (2007). Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS): Italian translation and adaptation. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 252, 59-71.
Veale, D., Boocock, A., Gournay, K., Dryden, W., Shah, F., Willson, R., & Walburn, J. (1996). Body dysmorphic disorder. A survey of fifty cases. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 196-201. doi: 10.1192/bjp.169.2.196
Williams, J., Hadjistavropoulos, T., & Sharpe, D. (2006). A meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatments for body dysmorphic disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 99-111.
Wu, K. D., & Watson, D. (2003). Further investigation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: psychometric analysis in two non-clinical samples. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 305-319. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00234-7

Leave a comment


Metal Music Videos psychotherapy directory resources wordpress consulting travel blog