OFFENDING, VICTIMIZATION, AND DOUBLE INVOLVEMENT: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE THREE PROFILES
Celeste SIMÕES, Margarida GASPAR MATOS,
Equipa Aventura Social
FMH/UTL & CMDTla/IHMT/UNL, Lisbon, Portugal
Bullying in schools is associated with several factors such as the individual, family, peers, school, and community. Some recent studies showed that the main social contexts (i.e., family, friends, classmates and teachers) have an indirect impact on risk behaviors through their impact on personal factors. The purpose of this paper is to develop an explicative model for bullying, where the main social contexts have an impact on school satisfaction and subjective health complaints, that have a direct impact on bullying. Three models with a different dependent variable were developed to find the differences and similarities of these predictors on offending, victimization and double involvement in bullying. The results show that the determinants of these behaviors are different. It seems that school satisfaction is more important for offending and double involvement. Subjective health complaints appear as a risk factor for the three profiles. Teachers are the most important protective factor for school satisfaction, and classmates and family seem to have an important protective impact on subjective health complaints. Implications for intervention are further discussed.
Keywords: bullying, victimization, offending, double involvement