Benjamin W. VAN VOORHEES* (1), Joshua FOGEL (2), Benjamin E. POMPER (1), Monika MARKO (1), Nicholas REID (1), Natalie WATSON (1), John LARSON (3), Nathan BRADFORD (4), Blake FAGAN (5), Steve ZUCKERMAN (6), Peggy WIEDMANN (6), Rocco DOMANICO (7)
(1) The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
(2) Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York, USA
(3) Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, USA
(4) Anderson Area Medical Center, Anderson, South Carolina, USA
(5) University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill at the Mountain Area Health Education Center, Asheville, North Carolina, USA
(6) Advocate Healthcare, Chicago, Illinois, USA
(7) John C. Stroger Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Internet-based interventions for education and behavior change have proliferated, but most adolescents may not be sufficiently motivated to engage in Internet-based behavior change interventions. We sought to determine how two different forms of primary care physician engagement, brief advice (BA) versus motivational interview (MI), could enhance participation outcomes in an Internet-based depression prevention intervention.
Eighty-three adolescents at risk for developing major depression were recruited by screening in primary care and randomized to two groups: BA (1-2 minutes) + Internet program versus MI (10-15 minutes) + Internet program. We compared measures of participation and satisfaction for the two groups for a minimum of 12 months after enrollment.
Both groups engaged the site actively (MI: 90% versus BA: 78%, p=0.12). MI had significantly higher levels of engagement than BA for measures including total time on site (143.7 minutes versus 100.2 minutes, p=0.03), number of sessions (8.16 versus 6.00, p=0.04), longer duration of session activity on Internet site (46.2 days versus 29.34 days, p=0.04), and with more characters typed into exercises (3532 versus 2004, p=0.01). Adolescents in the MI group reported higher trust in their physician (4.18 versus 3.74, p=0.05) and greater satisfaction with the Internet-based component (7.92 versus 6.66, p=0.01).
Our results indicate that primary care engagement, particularly using motivational interviewing, may increase Internet use dose, and some elements enhance and intensify adolescent use of an Internet-based intervention over a one to two month period. Primary care engagement may be a useful method to facilitate adolescent involvement in preventive mental health interventions.
Keywords: depressive disorder, adolescents, prevention, Internet, primary care, intervention, motivational interview, brief advice